Figure of speech

                                 Figure of speech

A figure of speech is a departure from the ordinary form  of expression or the ordinary course of ideas in order to produce a greater effect.

Figure of speech का अर्थ अलंकार है|इसका मुख्य कार्य वाक्य के कथन की शोभा बढ़ाना है|जिस प्रकार शरीर की शोभा बढ़ाने के लिए आभूषण धारण किए जाते हैं उसी प्रकार भाषा को सुन्दर और सजीव बनाने के लिए अलंकार का प्रयोग होता है|

There are 7 kinds of figure of speech in English language.

  1.  Simile (उपमा)
  2.  Metaphor (रूपक)
  3.   Personification (मानवीकरण)
  4.   Apostrophe (संबोधन) 
  5.  Oxymoron (विरोधाभास) 
  6.  Onomatopoeia (ध्वन्यात्मक) 
  7.  Hyperbole (अतिशयोक्ति)

1. Simile (उपमा)  –     In simile a comparison is made between two different objects which have at least one point in common.

उपमा अलंकार में दो भिन्न भिन्न जाति की वस्तुओं में तुलना की जाती है जिनमें कम से कम एक गुण की समानता होती है|
इनमे ऐसे शब्दों जैसे like;so;as;as___as;so___as आदि का प्रयोग होता है|
Note-A comparison of two things of the same kind is not a simile.
1 life is like a dream.
2 The night is dark as a black stone.
3 She is as fresh as dew.
4 She falls like a tear from the eyes of bride.

2 Metaphor (रूपक)  -In a metaphor two things of the different kinds are compared but word of comparison {like;so;as;as___as etc.} are not used.

रूपक अलंकार में दो भिन्न प्रकार की वस्तुओं की तुलना की जाती है; किन्तु तुलनात्मक शब्दों so;like;as आदि का प्रयोग नही किया जाता है|
1 Life is a dream.
2 Life is not a bed of roses.
3 Friendship is a sheltering tree.
4 He holds the reigns of office.

3 Personification(मानवीकरण)   -In personification lifeless objects or abstract ideas are spoken of as having life and intelligence.

मानवीकरण में निर्जीव वस्तु अथवा भावनात्मक विचारों का इस प्रकार वर्णन किया जाता है जैसे उसमे जीवन है|
Note- मानवीकरण में निर्जीव वस्तु को सजीव मान लिया जाता है|
1 Love is blind.
2 Jealousy is a green eyed monster.
3 Anxiety is sitting on her face.
4 A lie has no legs.

4 Apostrophe (संबोधन)   -An apostrophe is a direct address to the dead to the absent; or to a personified object or idea.

संबोधन अलंकार  मे मृतक; अनुपस्थित; मानवीय गुण वाली वस्तु अथवा विचार के प्रति सीधा संबोधन किया जाता है|
1 Milton!Though should’st be living at this hour.
2 O solitude!Where are thy charms?
3 O death! Where is
thy sting?
4 O grave! Where is thy victory?
Note- इस अलंकार को पहचानना बहुत ही सरल है क्योकि इसमे संबोधन वाचक चिन्ह (!) आता है यही इसकी मुख्य पहचान है |

5 Oxymoron-   Oxymoron is the combination of two words of opposite meaning in one expression.

Oxymoron is a special form of Antithesis whereby two contradictory qualities are predicated at once of the same thing.
विरोधाभास वह अलंकार है जिसमे एक ही वस्तु के दो विरोधी गुण एक साथ दिए हो|
1 Life is bitter sweat.
2 It is an open secret.
3 Love gives a pleasing pain.
4 The boy is regularly irregular.

6 Onomatopoeia (ध्वन्यात्मक)-In onomatopoeia the sound of the words suggests the sense or meaning.

Onomatopoeia is a figure of speech in which the sound suggests the sense or meaning.
Note-onomatopoeia का प्रयोग उस समय होता है जब शब्दों की ध्वनि से उस भाव या तथ्य का आभास हो जिसका वर्णन किया जा रहा है।
1 Thundering of guns.
2 cooing of doves.
3 Can you hear the buzzing of bees?
4 I chatter chatter as I flow to join the brimming river.

7 Hyperbole(अतिशयोक्ति)   -In hyperbole a statement is made emphatic by overstatement.

Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which things are represented as greater or less;better or worse;than they really are.
1 I’ve told you to clean your room a million times !
It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing hats and jackets.
She’s so dumb, she thinks Taco Bell is a Mexican phone company. 
I am so hungry I could eat a horse.

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